Top 10 traditional energy-saving technologies of t

2022-07-24
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According to the government and professionals in the automotive industry, the internal combustion engine with a long history will likely continue to exist for a long time. One enterprise suffered administrative punishment because of this. Although the promoters of automobile electrification predicted that the internal combustion engine would come to an end, the US energy information administration believed that by 2035, 99% of light and heavy-duty vehicles, especially commercial vehicles, would still be equipped with traditional internal combustion engines

in order to maintain the continuous upgrading of petrochemical fuel technology in commercial vehicles and passenger vehicles and the continuous application of innovative technologies, relevant research has also been uninterrupted. Improving the efficiency of internal combustion engine is one of the most promising and cost-effective short and medium-term methods to improve vehicle fuel economy. Experimental tests show that the fuel economy of current engine can be improved by more than 50%, even up to 75%

government departments actively promote plug-in hybrid power system, but it has not achieved the expected effect. The average annual sales of 16.5 million vehicles in the United States, 99% of which are still traditional internal combustion engine models. Although hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles use the electrification system, the internal combustion engine is still an indispensable and important part. At present, the new generation of lithium-ion battery is in the research and development stage. If it can be successfully applied to hybrid electric vehicles, it is difficult to predict the development trend of the automotive industry in the future. But now it is in the technical bottleneck stage, and the position of internal combustion engine is still stable

the federal average fuel economy regulations require that the fuel efficiency of new vehicles should reach 54.5 miles/gallon by 2025, thus prompting automobile manufacturers to promote the electrification process. Adopting such a standard can not completely reduce the market share of internal combustion engines. In fact, only 1% to 3% of vehicles can not meet this requirement, and plug-in hybrid systems must be added

there are 253million cars and trucks that can normally drive on the road in the United States. According to the data of the Department of energy, more than 60% of the oil fuel consumption and 25% of the greenhouse gas emissions in the United States are generated by vehicles. Authoritative experts strongly recommend the use of plug-in technology to improve the environmental pollution caused by vehicles. The automotive industry has invested a lot of money in technology research and development. However, Tesla and other companies have brought unprecedented challenges

the government has not focused all its energy on plug-in battery technology. In addition, it has also promoted the research and development of hydrogen fuel cells, alternative energy and innovative internal combustion engines. According to a survey conducted by the Transportation Research Institute of the University of Michigan, from October 2007 to June 2015, the fuel economy of new cars sold in the United States increased from 5.3 miles/gallon to 25.4 miles/gallon, and the technologies that can make a gallon of fuel drive the car more than 50 miles will also be applied to mass production models

like it or not, fuel economy is a comprehensive topic in politics and environment. Internal combustion engines must find a suitable foothold in this situation. Automobile manufacturers often have a large number of technical reserves to meet a variety of increasingly stringent fuel economy and carbon dioxide emissions regulations. According to the report of the US Environmental Protection Agency, the advanced engine technology helps to improve fuel efficiency and save the operating cost of the whole life cycle of the vehicle. The relevant efficiency and cost evaluation is completed according to the service life of 166000 miles and the fuel price of 2.81 dollars/liter. The comparison standard is the vehicle with fuel economy of 22 miles/gallon

1. Supercharged air intake system

in short, supercharging and 1 must pay attention to the above standard turbocharging technologies are two ways to compress more air, and the amount of fuel in the combustion chamber increases accordingly. Some fighter planes in the Second World War used supercharging technology, and the production of technology can be traced back to an earlier period. Now, with the popularization of computer-aided technology, it has become a reality to input more fuel and air under the condition of smaller size engine and supercharging

the introduction of supercharged intake system makes the power of small displacement engine equal to that of naturally aspirated large displacement engine. At the same time, it can meet the fuel economy and carbon dioxide emission evaluation standards required by the regulations on March 1. Supercharging technology is an expedient measure to ensure engine power output and fuel efficiency. Of course, the specific amount of fuel saved varies from person to person, and the driver's handling style should be referred to

fuel efficiency improvement: 2% to 6%

life cycle savings: $400 to $1300

2. Cylinder stopping technology

vehicles are increasingly using automatic system control technology, which can stop four cylinders of an eight cylinder engine or three cylinders of a six cylinder engine under low load conditions such as highways. The cylinder stop technology can also be called "multiple displacement", "on-demand displacement", "active fuel management", "variable cylinder management" technology, etc. This technical concept is very practical. For example, a Chevrolet corvettec7 with a rated power of 450 horsepower runs on the highway, and the fuel economy data reaches 30 miles/gallon, which was difficult to imagine before

fuel efficiency improvement: 4% to 10%

life cycle savings: $800 to $2100

3. Gasoline engine direct fuel injection system

with the help of this advanced technology, the fuel is directly injected into the intake port, and then forms a fuel mixture with the air, which is sucked into the cylinder. Similar technologies include "cylinder direct injection" and "spark ignition direct injection", which can make the temperature of fuel mixture lower and form a higher gas compression ratio, thus further improving power performance and fuel efficiency

fuel efficiency improvement: 2% to 3%

life cycle savings: $400 to $600

4. Variable valve timing and lift

the intake valve controls the flow of fresh air into the cylinder, and the exhaust valve controls the flow of exhaust gas out of the cylinder. When and how long the inlet and exhaust valves are opened will affect the engine performance. With reference to the current engine speed and load conditions, the variable valve timing and lift system automatically optimizes the valve opening time and lifting time. Compared with the traditional valve lifting system with fixed timing, the innovative system has higher fuel efficiency under various working conditions. Variable valve timing and lifting system includes variable valve drive technology, variable cam timing technology, cam valve timing technology, electronic lift control technology, etc

fuel efficiency improvement: 1% to 11%

life cycle savings: $200 to $2300

5. Engine start stop system

fans who know the hybrid system probably know the basic principle of the start stop system. This device is widely used in hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles. In short, when the vehicle stops moving forward, the start stop system can automatically shut down the engine; When the brake pedal is released by the driver and the accelerator is pressed, the engine immediately starts to run again. The concept of improving efficiency is also very clear, that is, to prevent fuel waste in idle state

automobile manufacturers have also introduced a kinetic energy recovery braking system from hybrid electric vehicles to convert the mechanical energy lost during braking into electrical energy, which is stored in the battery pack to drive the automatic starter. The so-called micro hybrid vehicles use such devices. Unlike the real hybrid system, the stored electric energy is not used to drive the traction motor. In addition to the 12 volt system, battery packs with higher voltage levels store and convert energy, and then provide energy for air conditioning systems, infotainment systems and other equipment

fuel efficiency improvement: 2% to 4%

life cycle savings: $400 to $800

another way to save fuel is to optimize the transmission efficiency of engine energy. The new transmission is perfectly matched with gasoline and diesel engines to improve fuel utilization as much as possible

6. Automobile manufacturers such as Chrysler, Hyundai, Ford and Volkswagen have announced that they will design and develop automatic transmissions with 10 gears. Each gear added to the traditional 4-gear automatic transmission helps the engine always be in an optimal working state, thus improving the potential efficiency. The average efficiency improvement rate data shown in the test are as follows: 2% to 3% in five grades; Gear 6 3% to 5%; Gear 7 5% to 7%; 8 gear 6% to 8%; The higher the gear, the greater the level of efficiency improvement. The concept of increasing gear can be used as an alternative solution for electrification, so that traditional models can also meet the requirements of regulations and standards

fuel efficiency improvement: 2% to 8%

life cycle savings: $400 to $1700

7. Continuously variable transmission (CVT)

CVT is more closely connected with hybrid power system, and it has many advantages in traditional models. The CVT uses a pair of belt pulleys with adjustable diameters, which are connected by belts or chains instead of traditional gear sets, and can create an infinite number of different transmission ratios. Thanks to the continuous shift operation, the energy transmission will not be interrupted, and the low-speed driven device is not required under mountain road conditions, which helps to achieve better fuel efficiency

fuel efficiency improvement: 1% to 7%

life cycle savings: $200 to $1500

8. Double clutch automatic transmission (DCT)

double clutch transmission, also known as automatic manual transmission, combines the advantages of manual transmission and automatic transmission. The transmission energy loss rate of the manual transmission is low, but it is not as convenient to operate as the automatic transmission. When using the dual clutch transmission to shift gears, the driver does not need to step on the clutch manually, but only needs to control the up and down paddles on the steering wheel. Of course, the automatic transmission mode can also be directly selected. The operation of the system is controlled by electronic components, and the shift operation is performed by hydraulic or electric equipment. Perhaps many traditional people believe that only manual transmission can bring driving pleasure. It has been a long time since dual clutch transmission has been used in low-performance sports cars and racing cars

fuel efficiency improvement: 7% to 10%

life cycle savings: $1500 to $2100

there are other technologies that can improve fuel efficiency

9. Lightweight technology

simplicity plus lightweight is the eternal law for designing and manufacturing high-performance flexible sports cars. A lighter body can additionally improve fuel economy. Lightweight models need less energy to drive, and automobile manufacturers are also very keen on the lightweight concept, because it will not conflict with other design goals. Some common practices include using high-strength steel, aluminum alloy and other lightweight materials (such as carbon fiber), or reducing the size of the drive system. At the same time, the vehicle must meet increasingly stringent safety standards, and the material selection and technology application should be perfectly combined. Various solutions have improved the lightweight level of the vehicle. There may be some designs that are not conducive to the improvement of fuel efficiency, but on the whole, the current automotive products are developing in a better direction

fuel efficiency improvement: every 5% weight reduction will increase the efficiency by 2% to 4%

life cycle savings: $400 to $800

10. Low rolling resistance tyres

there is no doubt that tyres are very important for cars. They are vehicles and roads

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